Which Indian cities have the best air quality?

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Which cities have the best air quality in India, and which have the worst? I analyzed data from the World Health Organization’s database of annual particulate pollution (PM2.5) averages for 122 cities. Here’s what I found.


Agra Through Mumbai

122 cities is too much for one graph, so I broke it in half. Here’s A through M from cities in India with the worst air quality (highest PM2.5 in the graph) to the best air quality (lowest PM2.5 number is the graph).

Cities in India with best air quality

Here’s that same list in alphabetical order.

Nagaon Through Warangal

Here’s cities in India, N through Z from highest pollution levels to lowest pollution levels.

comparison of best and worst air quality in India

And here’s that same list in alphabetical order.

comparison of best and worst air quality in India - alphabetical

Takeaway 1: It helps to be later in the alphabet

For some unknown reason (regional linguistic differences?), you’re better off on average if you’re living in an N-Z city in India (48 micrograms) rather than an A-M city (66 micrograms).


Takeaway 2: Only one city is under the WHO annual limit

The World Health Organization’s annual limit is 10 micrograms/m3. Only one city in India came in under that limit—Tezpur, Assam. That means, from this data, Tezpur has the best air quality in India.

Tezpur, Assam - the city with the best air quality in India

Maybe 10 micrograms is a ridiculous, unattainable limit? It’s true that my university’s city, Chicago, is above that limit (12 micrograms), although New York City is just below it (9 micrograms). Many major developed cities are around 10 micrograms.


Takeaway 3: Seven cities are under the looser WHO 24-hour limit

If the 10 microgram limit is too strict, we can try out the looser 24-hour limit of 25 micrograms. Based on that limit, seven cities on the top 10 list make the cut. That’s a meager 6% of cities under this looser limit, or 6% of cities in India have air quality levels that are almost acceptable.


India’s Top 10

India’s top 10 cities with the best air quality, according to this database are:

  1. Tezpur (6 micrograms)
  2. Pathanamthitta (12)
  3. Hassan (19)
  4. Chitoor (21)
  5. Kollam (22)
  6. Puducherry (22)
  7. Bongaigaon (24)
  8. Madurai (26)
  9. Warangal (26)
  10. Alappuzha (27)


India’s Bottom 10

The cities in India with the worst air quality, or the highest levels of air pollution, according to this database are:

  1. Gwalior (176 micrograms)
  2. Allahabad (170)
  3. Patna (149)
  4. Raipur (144)
  5. Delhi (122)
  6. Ludhiana (122)
  7. Kanpur (115)
  8. Khanna (114)
  9. Firozabad (113)
  10. Lucknow (113)



Now, this data isn’t perfect. For one, it’s from 2012, so it’s a bit old.

Second, some Indian cities don’t measure PM2.5, so the WHO infers it from the larger PM10 particles (what’s the difference?). I’ve discovered that the WHO database vastly underestimates pollution levels in Beijing compared to my analysis of local data.

To some extent, the exact top and bottom cities for air quality in India are arbitrary. Different articles use different data sources and will come up with a different answer for the best air quality in India. But the bigger picture of air quality across India holds up regardless of the dataset – Indian cities are dangerously polluted and you need to protect yourself.

What should I do about it India’s air quality?

What kind of an answer would this be if there weren’t some solutions in it? After coughing through Beijing and Delhi’s smog for years, I’ve combed through the data, done my own tests, and found several cheap ways to protect my lungs:

Has there been reputable research on the effectiveness of anti-pollution masks?

Can the Quora community in Delhi come together to think of viable solutions for air pollution in Delhi?

Do air purifiers remove PM2.5?

On average, how long can I wear a 3M N95 face mask before it needs to be disposed?

芝加哥大学行为科学系的助理教授; Smart Air创始书呆子。


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