ASHRAE Recommended Air Changes Per Hour

Data shows that improving indoor ventilation can reduce the risk of virus transmission, and is recommended by the CDC.  But what is the recommended air changes per hour for different spaces? In this article, we’ll cover the recommended ASHRAE recommended air changes per hour for offices, homes, schools, residential and hospitals, using the ASHRAE 62.1 and 62.2 guidelines.

ASHRAE Recommended Air Changes Per Hour

In the US, ASHRAE sets the minimum outdoor air ventilation rates for buildings in the ASNI/ASHRAE Standard 62.1 and 62.2 guidelines. These standards specify how much outdoor air should be brought into a room every hour, and is based on occupancy and room size.

Read More: What is Air Changes Per Hour (ACH) & How to Calculate

ASHARE Standard 62.1 2013 ventilation rates for schools offices restaurants hotels homes retail.jpg

The ASHRAE 62.1 (“Ventilation and Acceptable Indoor Air Quality in Residential Buildings”) recommends homes receive no less than 0.35 air changes per hour of outdoor air to ensure adequate indoor air.

For other spaces like offices, shops, and schools, the ASHRAE 62.1 standard doesn’t give a fixed number. Instead, airflow rates based on the size of a room, its use (e.g. school, office, sports arena) and the number of people inside are provided. These can be used to calculate exact airflow requirements for a certain space.

The table below provides a summary of the ASHRAE recommended air changes per hour for common building types. These air changes per hour are based on typical room sizes and occupancy rates, including for homes, hotel rooms, offices, schools and shops.

Recommended ASHRAE Ventilation air change rates table for home hotel room school office shop

Learn More: Air Purifiers & COVID-19 Protection for Schools »

The table above gives approximate air changes per hour for schools, homes, hotels, shops and restaurants. Exact ventilation rates for a given space should be calculated based on the ASHRAE 62.1 standard. But the rules below are helpful staring points for calculating the recommended air changes per hour for your space.

Doubling Room Occupancy Means Doubling Air Changes Per Hour

Ventilation and air change rates are calculated on a per-person basis. If the number of occupants in a room doubles, the required ventilation rate or air change doubles. This rule can be useful for office spaces as the occupancy level changes.

Doubling room occupancy doubles the room outdoor fresh air ventilation required

Bigger Spaces Require More Outdoor Air

This rule is simple. Ignoring the number of people in a room, a room that’s 100sqm requires twice as much outdoor air as a room that’s 50sqm.

When Should the ASHRAE Standard Not be Used? 

The ASHRAE Standard is a useful guideline for ventilation and air change rates in homes, offices hospitals and classrooms. However, there may be some situations where the recommended ventilation rate here is too low. The ASHRAE Standard outlines two of these situations:

  • Areas with smokers. In areas with smokers or environmental tobacco smoke, the required air changes per hour will be higher.
  • Areas with sources of harmful emissions. If an area has a high level of harmful emissions such as VOCs, then you may need to increase ventilation further or use an air purifier.

Read more: What are VOCs and how to can we remove them from the air →

ASHRAE Recommendation on Air Changes For Viruses

The ASHRAE guidelines give general ventilation rates to maintain a comfortable indoor environment. They do not cover environments with a high concentration of viruses. That could be hospitals, or in the context of COVID-19, offices, schools or restaurants with infected people.

For high-virus these scenarios, the ANSI/ASHRAE/ASHE Standard 170-2017 or the CDC guidelines should be followed. The ASHRAE 170-2017 states a recommended number of outdoor air changes per hour of 2, with the total air changes required varying from 6-12 (depending on the location in the hospital).

Hospital AreaMinimum Outdoor ACHMinimum Total ACH
Critical and Intensive Care26
Airborne Infection Isolation Room212
Examination Room26

Similarly, the CDC recommends 6-12 air changes per hour for airborne infection isolation rooms (AIIB).

If dealing with viruses or other airborne infections, it is therefore recommended to have a higher ventilation rate, in the proximity of 6-12 air changes per hour.

Bottom Line:

The recommended ventilation rates for schools, offices, shops, restaurants and homes varies from 0.35 – 8 air changes per hour. When dealing with places that may contain viruses, the recommended air changes per hour are higher, approximately 6-12.

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