The difference between PM10 and PM2.5 is size. “PM” refers to particulate matter—particles in the air. Those particles are things like organic dust, airborne bacteria, construction dust, and coal particles from power plants (for example, check out).
Now on to size. The “10” and the “2.5” refer to microns (AKA micrometers). Microns are tiny. Here’s an idea of how small microns are compared to human hair:
What PM Is Not
Finally, it’s helpful to think of what PM is not. Particulate pollution does not include gas pollutants like ozone and NO2.
For fellow nerds curious to read more about PM2.5:
- I describe how governments measure PM2.5 (including the trick of how they get rid of any particles in the air larger than 2.5 microns)
- Here I describe the latest science on what PM2.5 does to our bodies.
- In , I detect PM2.5 in my home in Beijing and test whether a simple DIY air purifier I made can clean it up.
Hope that helps!
Thomas is an Associate Professor of Behavior Science at the University of Chicago Booth School of Business and the founder of, a social enterprise to help people in China breathe clean air without shelling out thousands of dollars for expensive purifiers.