Can HEPA Filters Release Dirty Particles Back Into the Air?

Can air purifier HEPA filters re release pollution back into the air

HEPA filters are great at filtering particles such as dust, PM2.5 and PM10. They also do an incredible job of capturing nanoparticles including viruses and bacteria.

What HEPA filters don’t do though, is destroy the particles. This has lead to a lot of marketing hype and confused air breathers. Some companies claim they have superior technology that never re-releases captured particles, or even eliminates particles all-together.

Blueair claims HEPA filter re-release dirty pollution back into air

The logic seems reasonable. If a HEPA filter is like a sieve, then when you turn it upside down the particles can fall out. Here’s a super simple rendition of how we think air filters work, using a sieve and tea leaves.

HEPA filter not like sieve release dislodge particles

 

HEPA Filters are Not Sieves

The truth is, HEPA filters don’t work like this. At least, not for the tiny small particles like viruses and bacteria. These particles are so small, chemical forces stick them to the HEPA filter. These forces are called van der Walls forces. It’s the same chemical magic that makes geckos stick to surfaces.

van dar walls forces air purifier HEPA filter catch tiny particles

 

What The Data Says on HEPA Filters Releasing Dirty Particles Back into the Air

 

Okay, so that’s the theory, but where’s the data to prove it? Good news. Scientists in Japan have tested this. They shot plutonium particles that were 100-200nm in size at HEPA filters. For reference 100-200nm is roughly the same size as the coronavirus (60-140nm).

Tiny plutonium particles stuck and re-release from HEPA filter into the air

They then measured how many were re-released back into the air over a 20 day period. They did this while blowing air forwards through the filter, and in a reverse direction. The scientists even measured whether ‘jolting’ the filter would dislodge more particles.

They found that when blowing air forwards through the filter, there was a very minimal re-release of particles back into the air. Much lower than the 0.03% of particles that what would normally get through a 99.97% filter anyway.

Air purifier HEPA filter dislodge very few particles re-release into air for normal air flow

Things got interesting when they blew air through a really full (well used) filter in a reverse direction. In this case, more particles were dislodged.

Used HEPA filter dislodge re-release particles into air for reverse flow

This makes sense, clogged/full HEPAs are more likely to release particles back into the air. But only when air is blown through the filter in a reverse direction.

This is an extreme case, unlikely to occur unless a used filter is re-inserted into an air purifier in the wrong direction. However, the scientists concluded that filters should be handled with care when removing and replacing them.

Used HEPA filters handle with care dislodge particles

Are particles dislodged from HEPA filters really a health risk?

Data shows that some particles can become dislodged from HEPA filters during use. Despite this, the health risk may be minimal, since:

  • The number of particles dislodged in the forward-flow direction is far less than what would get through the HEPA filter anyway.
  • If we’re considering viruses, they typically die within 3-24hrs on dry surfaces. That means that any viruses that do escape the HEPA filter will most likely be dead by the time they do.

 

Bottom Line: Do HEPA Filters Re-release Dirty Pollutants Back Into the Air?

Data shows that HEPA filters can re-release tiny amounts of particles back into the air. Unless the filter is turned around, these amounts are much less than what normally passes through a 99.97% filter.

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