Does AC Bring in PM2.5 air pollution?

It’s that time of year when Beijing is starting to sizzle, if this person roasting fish on her car is any indication. We’ve just turned our air conditioner on, and then we wonder: does our AC suck in air pollution?


need ac in summer bring in air pollution


Although we’re roasting, air pollution doesn’t take a break during summer months:


air pollution levels during the summer


It’s not airpocalypse levels, but the buildings nearby are starting to look fuzzy.


Beijing and Delhi heat causing blurry buildings


That made me wonder. If I turn on the air conditioner, is that going to bring in dirty outdoor air pollution?


do air conditioners filter out air pollution or suck it in from outside


A question that I get asked often (and that I have always wondered about) is whether my wall-mounted air conditioner is sucking in dirty, polluted air from outside. If so, it’d be safer not to use it, especially on really polluted days.


My short answer is no. To explain why, I’ve got three points of evidence:


#1 Tests of the air coming out of the air conditioner


I’ve held my particle counter up into the air coming out of my AC unit, and it’s no different from the ambient room air (See a live test here). I’ve also compared that air to outside air on very dirty days, and the air coming out of the AC is nowhere near as dirty as outside air.


testing indoor air quality pollution levels when ac is turned on


air pollution levels from AC air conditioner wall mounted device


(I did this test when I had just turned on my AC. If the AC were bringing in dirty air and I were to test the exhaust after I had been running the AC for a long time, then my whole room would be dirty, not just the exhaust.)


#2 Tests of the ambient room air before and after turning the AC on


In each test, before starting, I closed my windows and turned off my AC. I ran my particle counter for 30 minutes to get a baseline reading of indoor air pollution levels. Then I turned on the AC for 30 minutes.


Results? Air conditioners make basically no difference to indoor air pollution levels.


Here’s what happened to indoor air pollution levels in one test after turning the AC on:


indoor air pollution pm2.5 levels after turning on Air conditioning


Here I’m comparing the pollution numbers just before I turned the AC on and 30 minutes later. As you can see, the AC has basically no effect on indoor air pollution levels. If anything, the larger 2.5 micron particle levels reduce slightly. My guess is this is because the coarse pre-filter in the AC unit captures up some large particles.


And here is the average effect of my AC on indoor air pollution levels over 7 different tests in my bedroom.


effect of AC on indoor air pollution levels when windows are closed


#3 How air conditioners work


Regular wall-mounted air conditioners in China and India do have a unit outside connected with tubes to the inside, but that tube is not bringing in outside dirty air. It’s circulating coolant.


So where does the air it’s blowing come from? If you look around your air conditioner, you’ll probably discover that it works like mine: it brings air from the top, runs it over the cooling coils, and blows it out the front. It’s recycling indoor air, not bringing in outdoor air.


source of air from wall mounted air conditioner


What if I have a central air system – does that bring in outdoor air pollution?


If you’re in a room with a central air system, things get trickier. You’ll have to do some research of your building to find out what air is coming out of those vents.


air pollution from central air system


Some systems bring in a lot of outdoor air. Some bring in none. Some systems filter that air. Some don’t.


Here’s how you can get to the bottom of it:

1. Check out the system (if you can). Does it have filters? Does it have an outdoor air intake?

2. Ask the management (if they even know!).

3. Test the air coming out. Here’s how I’d recommend doing it.

If you don’t have a particle counter and you’re based in Beijing or Delhi, Smart Air can provide you with an indoor air quality audit to test your central air system, or to just test for general particulate air pollution and gas pollutants. 

Schedule your own indoor air quality test here!


indoor air quality audit for air conditioner and central air HVAC system


Open Data – AC air pollution data


I made the original test data available for fellow nerds here.

Caveat about me: I’m not an expert in air pollution. I’m a social psychologist.

But living through Beijing’s pollution got my nerd spirit running about air quality, and I soon got into making low-cost DIY purifiers and started a social enterprise (Smart Air) to help get low-cost purifiers to more air-breathers. With the help of dedicated nerds and volunteers, Smart Air ships simple, no-bull purifiers to air-breathers in IndiaChinaMongolia, and the Philippines.


Smart Air education



Covid19 coronavirus best masks materials fundraiser

Get the latest clean air tips!

Get updates on masks, air purifiers and air quality delivered straight to your inbox.

Leave a Reply

Notify of

Hello Thomas, my english is not so good 🙂 I m Marc from Germany, living from august 2018 in Malaysia Johor Bahru now and for one, two more years.. Our son is in grade 8 in international canadian school. The government makes measurements by API. …i use own in germany bought professional device for AQI, 2,5 etc. When for ex. the App “Air Visual” shows Singapur(Johor is directly at Singapur!) with 150, Malaysia is only 60..70…so i think Malaysia goverment is giving fake measurement. School is closing from 200API of Malaysia goverment!!! My Device was on 220 in classroom of… Read more »