Half of Chinese N95 Masks Fail Quality Checks

Tests of masks marketed as N95 from 21 manufacturers show that half of Chinese N95 masks fail quality tests–with some masks filtering no better than a cotton cloth. These tests come at a time that many countries around the world are scrambling for masks and other PPE.

Factories Spring Up to Meet Mask Demand

Factories in China have popped up seemingly overnight to meet the demand. Amid the rush, the high prices masks are commanding have led to what The Wall Street Journal called a “wild west” for mask manufacturing.

Dozens of suppliers contacted Smart Air hawking everything from surgical masks to CE-certified FFP2 and N95 masks. Some suppliers even claimed they could make hundreds of thousands of masks a day.

Mask Supplier in China selling N95 masks

Putting China’s New Masks to The Test

To find out just how well these masks are performing, we started contacting suppliers and testing their masks from the middle of April. In total, we tested 31 masks from 21 suppliers. The suppliers claimed their masks were N95 or KN95, meaning they filter 95% of particles (similar to the FFP2 standard in Europe). What we found shocked us.

Tests on reliable N95 masks from 21 factories in China

We tested masks’ filtration efficiency using a method that resembled the “particulate filter efficiency” test in the official US test standard. The standard tests normally use a TSI 8130 machine that costs $95,000.

TSI 8130 Mask Test Machine

Our engineering team simulated this setup using three Met One particle counters (which cost about $5,000 each). This test provides a reasonable approximation of the official test, although it cannot be used to formally certify masks for government standards.

Met One Particle Counter to measure N95 mask filtration effectiveness

We adjusted the airflow to 85L/min to match the NIOSH test standard and measured the percentage of particles 0.3 microns and above the masks were capturing. In total, we tested two samples of each mask and repeated the filtration efficiency tests 3 times for each sample.

Smart Air N95 mask test setup wind tunnel

Read more: How we tested masks and how it compares to NIOSH standards.

Most Chinese N95 Masks Fail Quality Tests

Out of the 31 masks tested, 13 Chinese N95 masks fail quality standards for filtration.

42% of Chinese N95 Masks Fail Quality Checks

In other words, buying N95 masks in this new supply chain has odds of flipping a coin that buyers will actually get an N95 mask. To meet the N95 (US) or KN95 (China) requirement, masks need to capture 95% of particles. Yet only 18 masks managed to capture more than 95% of tiny particles.

13 out of 31 masks failed to meet N95 standard

Read more: Here’s exactly what the difference is between N95 and KN95 masks is.

What’s more, many of these failing masks were not just a few percentage points below the standard. On average, the masks that failed the tests captured just 51% of particles. The worst of the worst captured just 24% of particles, which is on par with the filtration ability of a bed sheet.

Half of Chinese N95 Masks Fail Quality Checks Filtration

Masks Show Poor Quality in Straps, Stitching, Noseband

Next, we ran simple tests of the structural quality of the masks. These tests focused only on the masks that met the N95 standard. To start, we pulled the straps of each mask.

Chinese N95 masks fail quality wear tests

Straps on some models broke almost immediately. Straps failed on 11 out of 18 masks. Consequently, these masks are unlikely to last long, especially under conditions where healthcare workers are having to re-use masks.

Straps on Many Masks Broke After Just a Gentle Tug

Next, we tested the masks for fit. This revealed a common issue with the nose pieces and glue. Sub-standard glue meant that metal nose clips on some models came off quickly. In one model, the mask split open in the middle while the engineer was putting it on.

Chinese N95 Masks Fail Quality Checks Structural Integrity

Why this matters: Longevity tests show masks remain effective after 30 days of use.

Only 7 masks – less than one-quarter – passed both the N95 filtration tests and these “wear and tear” tests. Thus, even masks that meet the N95 filtration standard may still prove useless.

New N95 Masks Made in Mobile Phone and IT Factories

To try to understand why so many masks were failing our tests, we did a background check on each of the 21 companies using a company directory for China.

Mask Company Check China Tianyancha Website

Out of the 21 factories, we found that only 9 of the factories that sent us mask samples worked in the “health and medical” sectors. The other 12 operate in sectors such as mobile phone accessories, sports products, and even software & IT services.

Majority of companies selling masks do not operate in medical sector

Oddly enough, there was no correlation between factory sector and mask performance. This could be because the companies actually selling masks are just middle men and not actually producing the masks.

Chinese N95 masks fail quality regardless of manufacturing sector

Non-medical companies sent us an average of two mask designs versus one for medical companies. Thus, the non-medical companies appear to be merely re-sellers.

New Moves May Help Clean Up Supply Chain

Recent moves may be helping the situation. In an attempt to limit the number of uncertified masks on the market, on April 10th, China tightened the checks on masks leaving the country. It remains to be seen whether these checks will prove useful.

Bottom Line: Buying N95 and KN95 Masks from China

Tests of 31 N95, KN95, and FFP2 mask samples show that Chinese N95 masks fail quality checks for filtration on 42% of samples, with many showing shoddy structural work in the glue and straps. Therefore, we recommend buyers take proactive steps to check the quality of the masks before placing orders. The masks in China’s “wild west” could be endangering healthcare workers around the world.

Smart Air

Why we anonymized factory names: Because we tested masks from only a small handful of suppliers (21 in total), this data represents a fraction of all the companies making masks right now. Therefore, we didn’t set out to name and blame specific factories. Instead, we provide this data as a snapshot of the industry. For more information on the suppliers and tips on how to source reliable masks, check out our tips for sourcing N95 masks article.

Open Data

As always, data at Smart Air is open source. Data and more details on the methodology are in the supplemental data article.


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《Half of Chinese N95 Masks Fail Quality Checks》有20条评论

  1. Currently using two brands of ASTM level 3 masks, one 3-layer, one 4-layer. Both are made in China. (1) Have you tested such masks for performance & if so, how did they do? (2) What US fabricators are producing these masks?

  2. Why NOT list the factories that failed? if you state its an “unofficial” test anyway… ..you may save peoples LIVES!!! Please list the factory names and let the consumers decide if they wish to buy/use from that factory!! Lives are on the line! Seriously!

  3. Guess you do not understand what a baseline is for. By using an actual N95 NIOSH mask like from 3M you validate your testing methodology.

  4. What US Made certified N95 masks did you use for your baseline to make sure your test was properly calibrated

    • Hi Donald. Song here.
      We didn’t use any mask as our baseline. We tested their filtration ability as N95 masks are supposed to filter 95% of particles.

  5. While this research is invaluable, it would important to know which masks not to wear. Please do so!

  6. Can i share this on the social media?
    Aslo could you tell how do you put your testing sample on the devcie? The testing section seems closed.

  7. Hi, bought a 3M Half facepiece respirator from China, its marked as GB2626-2006 and the Particulate filters are marked as NIOSH approved N95. This is for non medical use only, DIY, Spray jobs etc, does this conform to UK standards and is it Ok to use?

      • Thank you Liz, appreciate the answer. As stated I don’t have a medical condition, the mask is just for DIY dusty jobs etc.
        Many Thanks

    • GB2626-2006 is out of date. It should be marked GB2626-2019. If you have further questions have a lok at the above document on P2 respiratory protection.

  8. This link is no longer working: https://www.tianyancha.com
    Is there another way to check on the company in China that is making the masks? Any updates on whether China’s tightened checks on the mask is working to remove all faulty N95/KN95 masks? Was there some sort of stamping/approval of which ones meet China’s tightened checks?

      • Paddy, You seem credible. Problem is that after reading your article there is more fear as we have no way of knowing who in the hell made masks that are from China. We also have had major issues with Chinese food products.

        I think you should source and test the masks yourself and sell them or at least lot test a source that you trust and “approve” them…..kind of like a Rabbi certifying Kosher food.

        Besides being very resentful of China’s antics with the virus and hoarding I have also used KN95s where the strap fell off! There are so many vendors and the prices are high.

        You are there on the ground and know how corners are cut in China and can discern shady producers from quality producers.

        We need a recommendation.

  9. Hi Paddy, do you or anyone else you know offer testing services for N95 masks?
    Thank you



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